【演講】2/20 潘毅(香港大學社會學系教授)講題:新工人——階級分析的回歸

  • 2019-02-19
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演講題目:新工人——階級分析的回歸
講者:潘毅(香港大學社會學系教授)
時間: 2019/2/20()15001800
地點:交通大學人社二館106A教室
 
  馬克思預言的革命還沒有來臨,相反西方社會在二戰之後走向相對繁榮和穩定的通道,西方學界自此「告別工人階級」。伴隨著中國成為「世界工廠」與「世界工地」,一個多達兩億的龐大的農民工群體逐漸形成。可是在如何理解農民工的社會地位,造成農民工困境的原因等重要問題上,一個非常核心的分歧是是否應該以階級的視角來看待農民工問題。
一直以來占據主流地位的階層視角與新興的階級視角之間的分野,不單是對資本主義生產關係是否存在於中國的認識上,而是對資本主義生產關係下社會性質和社會矛盾的判斷,以及對當下的社會矛盾是否建立於根本的利益對立,是否可以調和與避免的認識上。
  階級視野突出資本主義生產關係中內在利益對立的結構性基礎,強調資本家階級和工人階級之間不可避免的勞資衝突,主張只有將處於失語、錯位和扭曲的階級話語拯救出來,才能夠直面和回應產生利益對立、製造社會不公的結構性根源。階級視野認為,農民工問題的解決離不開農民工這一階級主體的誕生與抗爭,離不開資本主義社會關係的改變與再造,也就是離不開對於結構性格局中的生產關係與分配關係的實質性變革
  在西方社會理論界「告別工人階級」的時候,弔詭的是中國大陸卻正在中國真實地面對一個龐大的工人階級的艱難誕生的歷程。為了給強調個體主義、專業主義、機會平等和開放市場的新自由主義話語掃清道路,階級話語在中國被有意無意地或扭曲或壓制,在這個意義上,被投擲於資本主義生產關係之中的兩億農民工很有些「生不逢時」的意味,然而,他們以對強加在他們身上的剝削的最直接自發的反抗,頑強地將多方力量遮蔽的階級結構及階級對立暴露在世人面前,並呼喚自己作為一個階級存在的合法性。
  新工人階級是中國社會生產關係和制度變革的產物和主角,它又如一個縮影一樣,揭示了三十年改革所造成的全部社會衝突和矛盾。在世界工廠和大工地上,我們儼然看到了一個以地產和工業資本為代表的資產階級的到來和迅速膨脹,他們一面世,就成為新時代社會關係的中心和主導;另一方面,我們也見證了新工人在艱難掙扎求生存的苦難,以及一個新興工人階級孕育的艱難歷程。在今天,我們看到的是不可迴避的階級對立和衝突,即使我們今天這個階級話語消逝的年代也無法完全掩蓋。
  潘毅長期從事中國大陸農民工及全球化研究,並積極推動以階級分析進行中國大陸農民工研究。今次,潘毅與上海復旦大學特聘教授孟捷主編《農民工與新工人:當代中國階級問題研究》一書,由台灣交通大學文化研究國際中心出版,集合近十年內中國勞工研究領域前線的學者們關於農民工的研究成果。本書作者們大多受在前線運動者的經驗啟發,在忽視「階級分析」的當下社會與知識氛圍中,把「工人階級」重新帶回分析的中心。我們認為將中國大陸農民工問題帶入階級分析的視野,是深入理解中國在全球化中的資本主義時空狀態、從政治經濟視角認識中國與周邊地區糾纏關係、反思中國社會主義歷史,這些時代性課題的重要啟發。
 
講者簡介:
潘毅
倫敦大學亞非學院人類學博士,現為香港大學社會學系教授,主要從事中國勞工、移民、性別、社會主義歷史等研究。著有Migrant Labor in China: Post-Socialist Transformation、《中國女工:新興打工階級的呼喚》(任焰譯)、《中國新生代農民工》(牛穎譯)等多本中英文著作。2005年憑著作Made in China: Women Factory Workers in a Global Workplace獲美國「C. Wright Mills」獎,為首位獲此獎的亞洲學者;此書已有法文、德文、義大利文、波蘭文、中文等翻譯版本。研究論文陸續發表於Current SociologyThe China QuarterlyWork, Employment and SocietyThe China JournalInformation, Communication & Society等知名期刊。合著與合編的中文著作有《大工地上:中國農民工之歌》 (與盧暉臨、張慧鵬合著)、《我在富士康》(與盧暉臨、 郭于華合著)、《富士康輝煌背後的連環跳》(與沈原、郭于華、盧暉臨合著)、《蘋果背後的生與死:生產線上的富士康工人》(與Jenny ChanMark Selden合著)等。
 
New Working Class: Return of Class Analysis
Pun Ngai (Professor at Department of Sociology, The University of Hong Kong)
Time: 2019/2/20
15001800
Location: Room 106A, HA Building 2, NCTU
 
The promise of revolution by Karl Marx has not yet arrived. Meanwhile, the western academia has turned away from class analysis, as the western society has slowly progressed to be more prosperous and stable than it was since the end of WWII. Along with such progress, is China becoming "the world's factory" and "the world's construction site". A community of 200 million of peasant worker has slowly emerged. Whether or not to use class analysis to understand the social condition and the root of predicaments faced by the peasant workers has long to be a dispute within the academia. Not only because this implies whether or not capitalism's relations of production exist in China, but also this relates to different understandings on social nature and social conflicts under relations of production specific to capitalism and whether or not current social disputes are avoidable or solved without radical changes.
 
Class analysis emphasizes on the structural bases behind the conflicting interests in relations of production specific to capitalism. It highlights the unavoidable nature behind labour disputes between bourgeoisie and working class. It advocates only to rescue class analysis from silence, misuse and distortion, may the structural bases which create conflicts of interest that give rise to social injustice be directly addressed. A class analysis of the current situation would therefore suggest class consciousness and class struggle of peasant workers is crucial to solve the problem of peasant workers. As this is the key to change the relations of production and relations of distribution of capitalism , therefore the social relations.
 
While western academia is saying farewell to working class, Chinese working class is in the midst of a painful birth. In order to pave way for the rhetoric of individualism, professionalism, equality of opportunity and open market of neo-liberalism, class rhetoric is highly repressed and distorted. 200 million Chinese peasant workers are therefore born at the wrong time as they have been lived in a vacuum of class analysis. However, the direct actions initiated by these workers articulate clearly the presence of exploitation. These struggles unveil class structure and class conflicts, and call for the formation of class identity.
 
New working class is a product of China's relations of production and structural changes. It reflects all the social conflicts and antagonisms produced by the opening-up policy in these 30 years. What we can understand through "the world's factory" and "the world's construction site" is the birth of bourgeoisie which is represented by industrial capital and real estate capital. On the one hand, the bourgeoisie images itself elevated above working class and has taken up the leading role in contemporary social relations of China. On the other hand, we have witnessed the struggles and efforts the new working class make, together with the birth of class consciousness. Although we live in an age where class analysis is not popular, these class antagonisms and conflicts make themselves so explicit that even no one can turn a blind eye on them.
 
Pun Ngai has long devoted herself to the research of China's peasant workers and globalization, and is also a strong advocate in using class analysis to understand peasant workers' situation in China. Peasant Worker and New Working Class: A Research on China's Contemporary Class Issue, which is published by International Institute of Cultural Studies of National Chiao Tung University in Taiwan, is her latest work. Coedited with Meng Jie, a distinguished professor from Fudan University in Shanghai, this collection is an important reader to understand the problem of peasant workers of China. The reader has gathered fruitful works by active intellectuals who have done researches on peasant workers in the near decade. As most of these authors are deeply inspired by the struggles and experiences of social activists, they are able to bring focus to working class in the age when class analysis is neglected in the academia. We believe that by putting the issue of China's peasant workers under the lens of class analysis, may we be able to understand China's situation in the age of global capitalism, and therefore be able to use a political-economic analysis to review China's entangled relationship with its periphery region and its socialist past.
 
 
Biography of Pun Ngai:
Pun Ngai received her PhD from University of London, SOAS in 1998. She is the winner of 2006 C. Wright Mills Award for her book, Made in China: Women Factory Workers in a Global Workplace (Duke University Press, 2005). Made in China is widely used as required reading in major universities in America, Europe and Asia. Together with Dying for Apple: Foxconn and Chinese Workers (co-authored with Jenny Chan and Mark Selden, 2016), these two texts have been translated into German, French, Italian, Spanish, Polish and Chinese. Two of her Chinese books were also awarded Hong Kong Book Prize 2007 and 2011 as the top ten popular book, widely read in Hong Kong and Mainland China.
She published extensively and cross-disciplinary in journals in the areas of sociology, anthropology, labor studies, China studies and cultural studies. Her articles appeared in Current Sociology, Global Labor Studies, Work, Employment and Society, The China Quarterly, Modern China, and The China Journal, Positions, Public Culture and Cultural Anthropology.


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本次演講以中文為主This lecture is in Chinese)

經費來源: 高等教育深耕計畫特色領域研究中心計畫:「衝突、正義、解殖:亞際社會批判研究」 
 

主辦單位: 國立交通大學/台聯大系統文化研究國際中心、交通大學社會與文化研究所、亞際文化研究國際碩士學位學程(台灣聯合大學系統)